Thursday, June 5, 2014

The Blood Moons Prophecy: Hype, Harbinger or Hoax?

(*Note: If you are not familiar with the Blood Moons Prophecy and would like to watch a video explaining the theory you can follow the links at the bottom of the page)

May 19, 1780 is known by historians as “New England’s Dark Day.” In the midst of the Revolutionary War, nightfall eerily descended on New England at midday. Farmers were bewildered as birds quit singing and animals returned to the barns to roost. Families who were in the middle of eating lunch reportedly had to eat by candle light. A Massachusetts resident noted that in some places, the darkness was so great that “persons could not see to read common print in the open air.” Townspeople crowded the local churches in a frenzy thinking that the Judgment Day was at hand. People prayed through the night wondering if the sun would ever rise again.

The extent of the darkness was remarkable. The phenomenon was observed at the farthest regions of New England. Westward it spread to the farthest part of Connecticut. Southward at Albany, NY it was observed all along the sea coast. To the north, the land was blanketed in darkness as far as the American settlements extended. The duration of the darkness was also disturbing, continuing in the neighborhoods of Boston for at least fourteen hours.  

During that dark day in 1780, the House of Representatives was convened in Hartford, Connecticut, under the leadership of its speaker, Col. Abraham Davenport. The Colonel opposed adjourning the state legislature early, announcing to his men:

I am against adjournment. The day of judgment is either approaching, or it is not. If it is not, there is no cause of an adjournment; if it is, I choose to be found doing my duty. I wish therefore that candles may be brought.[1]

For the past two centuries historians and scientists have argued over the cause of this strange event. Today there are many theories. Was it the result of volcanic eruption, fire, meteor strike—or something more sinister? A solar eclipse can be ruled out as there is a record of when these occur, and they only last for a matter of minutes. There is no record of volcanic activity in 1780 either, making a huge ash cloud an unlikely explanation.[2]

Christians are suckers for this kind of stuff too. Prophecy buffs are notorious for whipping their audiences into heightened states of paranoia by drawing obscure passages out of Ezekiel and Zechariah and connecting them to the headlines. If the price of oil goes up or if there’s a tsunami tearing up jack, there’s a television evangelist with a chapter and verse saying, “Look, see here, the sky is falling.” If a nefarious world dictator wakes up with a bad case of indigestion, some over-caffeinated blogger who read every book in the Left Behind series is writing about it.

Don’t get me wrong. I am not making light of biblical prophecy. I am looking for the Second Coming of Christ. I adhere to a pre-mil, pre-trib, rapture eschatology. I salivate at the sight of end-times charts and graphs. I am just as interested in the identity of the two witnesses in Revelation 11 and understanding the meaning of Daniel’s wild and crazy visions as the next guy. But sometimes the Christian community tends to go overboard when it comes to end-times scenarios.

What is the Blood Moons Prophecy?

            Case in point is the recent interest over the so-called, “Blood Moons Prophecy.” According to NASA, four blood moons will appear on four Jewish feast days in 2014-2015. In the middle of this sequence (known in scientific circles as a tetrad), there will be a solar eclipse. Here are the times of their appearance:

04/14/2014 . . . Passover
10/08/2014 . . . Feast of Tabernacles
03/20/2015 . . . Total Solar Eclipse
04/04/2015 . . . Passover
09/28/2015 . . . Feast of Tabernacles[4]

A lunar eclipse occurs when the earth’s shadow (the umbra) falls on the moon. If the earth’s shadow completely covers the moon, it is a total eclipse. These total lunar eclipses are known as blood moons because when they occur, the moon takes on a reddish hue or blood color. Astronomers explain that this happens because the earth’s atmosphere scatters out shorter-wavelength light (green through violet) leaving mostly longer-wavelength light (red, orange, and yellow) in the earth’s umbra.

So what’s all the fuss about? A few prophecy buffs, based upon a handful of Scriptures and a few historical facts, believe that this tetrad of blood moons signals some impending event with Israel, or perhaps even the end of the age. Some believe that these moons could be the “final four” warnings for humanity to turn or burn.

Mark Blitz of El Shaddai Ministries was the first to take the blood moons prophecy to the mainstream market with the release of his 2008 book and documentary, Blood Moons: Decoding the Imminent Heavenly Signs. Blitz said in an interview:

I believe that the blood moons have great historic and prophetic significance just as they did following 1948 and 1967. In the book of Joel it mentions three times about the sun and the moon going dark and in context it also mentions Divine wrath against all countries who want to divide or part the land of Israel. I believe the moons are like flashing red lights at a heavenly intersection saying to Israel as well as the nations they will be crossing heavenly red lines if they do, and God has more than a pen and a phone in his hand.[5]

Another fire and brimstone preacher telling us to look to the heavens is John Hagee, the pastor of Cornerstone Church in San Antonio, who has championed this view in his recent bestselling book Four Blood Moons: Something Is about to Change. He writes:

This is the hand of God orchestrating the signs in the heavens. The final four blood moons are signaling that something big is coming . . . something that will change the world forever. But the bigger question is, are we watching and listening? . . . What they are telling us is that God is getting ready to change the course of human history once again. He is preparing to display the next series of signs in the heavens.[6] 

In another interview Hagee said of the blood moons:

There’s a sense in the world that things are changing and God is trying to communicate with us in a supernatural way. I believe that in these next two years, we're going to see something dramatic happen in the Middle East involving Israel that will change the course of history in the Middle East and impact the whole world.[7]

As you may have already surmised, I am skeptical of Hagee’s and Blitz’s claims. In my estimation, they have only added to the hysteria associated with the end-times by cobbling together a few Scriptures taken out of context and selectively reporting certain aspects of history. It is my aim in this essay to give a critique of their predictions and show that their message has some serious flaws.

Why do I feel the need to do this? Because we are told multiple times in the New Testament to do our homework. No one wants to be deceived and there is enough bad preaching and false doctrine leading people astray as it is, so we should be wary of sensationalists who are all but setting dates for the return of Christ.

In 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21 Paul tells us, “Do not despise prophecies, but test everything; hold fast what is good.” The apostle John gives a similar command, “Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world” (1 John 4:1).  Finally, we are to emulate the example of the Berean Christians in which it is written, “Now these Jews were more noble than those in Thessalonica; they received the word with all eagerness, examining the Scriptures daily to see if these things were so” (Acts 17:11).  

As a former seminary professor of mine once said, “Christians don’t get brownie points for being gullible.” I think he has a point. The American church is known for its shallowness when it comes to doctrine. There is a tendency to swallow hook-line-and-sinker whatever comes out of pulpits today, simply because a preacher said it. If you don’t believe me, just look at how many are wrapped up in the prosperity teachings which promise believers the ability to simply “name-it-and-claim-it.” We must be more discerning in the last days as Jesus warned that counterfeits would be on the rise, “See that no one leads you astray. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and they will lead many astray” (Matt. 24:4-5). 

Examining the Evidence  

Essentially, the blood moons theory is built upon four main ideas:

First, God uses the heavens to give signs to humanity. In Genesis 1:14 we read, “And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years.” According to Blitz and Hagee, God uses the skies as a billboard to advertise to the world what He is about to do. Hagee writes, “Therefore based on the Bible, God uses the sun, moon and stars as signals to mankind. He uses the heavens as a divine billboard announcing coming events.”[8] So if humanity is watching the heavens intently with the Bible in their hand they should be able to discern when God is sending an unmistakable message.  

Second, science confirms there will be four blood moons in 2014-15, each falling on the Jewish feasts of Passover and Tabernacles.

Third, Scripture mentions the moon turning to blood in conjunction with the end times. They are as follows:

And I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth, blood and fire and columns of smoke. The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and awesome day of the Lord comes. (Joel 2:30-31).

Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory (Matt. 24:29-30).

And I will show wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below, blood, and fire, and vapor of smoke; the sun shall be turned to darkness and the moon to blood, before the day of the Lord comes, the great and magnificent day (Acts 2:19-20, *note that in this passage Peter is quoting from Joel 2:30-31).

When he opened the sixth seal, I looked, and behold, there was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, the full moon became like blood, and the stars of the sky fell to the earth as the fig tree sheds its winter fruit when shaken by a gale (Rev. 6:12-13). 

Fourth, historical evidence suggests that when four blood moons fell on Jewish feasts in the past, significant events transpired involving the Jewish people and/or their land. According to Blitz and Hagee the blood moon tetrad in conjunction with the Jewish feasts has occurred three times in the last five hundred years. These coincidences are as follows:

·         The first tetrad occurred in 1493-1494, one year after The Edict of Expulsion of the Jews was signed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain on March 30, 1492. The edict banned Jews from Spain if they failed to convert to Catholicism. The year before the tetrad, Columbus sailed to the Americas, paving the way for the rise of the United States, which became a haven for the Jewish people from their perpetual persecution.

·         The second tetrad was in 1949-1950, one year after the founding of the modern state of Israel on May 14, 1948. Even though Israel was attacked from every side, they prevailed. The birth of Israel was backed and supported by the United States and President Harry S. Truman. After this historic occasion the Chief Rabbi of Israel, Isaac Halevi Herzog, called the White House and told Truman, “God put you in your mother’s womb so that you would be the instrument to bring about the rebirth of Israel after two thousand years.”[9]

·         The third tetrad transpired in 1967-1968. On June 5-10, 1967 Israel fought the famous “Six Day War” against the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. The Jewish people turned a bloodbath into a victory and captured the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria, and they seized control of Jerusalem.[10] 

With one tetrad remaining Hagee and Blitz are certain that a Divine conspiracy of cosmic proportions is afoot. This unique confluence of science, history, and Scripture fuels speculation that something significant is about to happen with Israel and/or America in 2015. But does this argument stand up to historical and biblical scrutiny or are these guys just trying to sell books?

Scripture Twisting

The first problem with the blood moons prophecy is the way that the Scriptures are taken out of context in order to support the theory. Anyone who attends a reputable seminary or Bible college to learn how to interpret the Scriptures (also known as hermeneutics, or the science of interpretation) is taught the first three rules of biblical exposition: context, context, context!

Understanding context begins with four principles: literal meaning (what it says), historical setting (the events of the story, to whom is it addressed, and how it was understood at that time), grammar (the immediate sentence and paragraph within which a word or phrase is found), and synthesis (comparing it with other parts of Scripture for a fuller meaning). As Christian apologist Norman Geisler used to say, “If the literal sense makes good sense, seek no other sense lest you come up with nonsense.” This is the golden rule of interpreting the Bible. If passages are taken out of context, then confusion reigns.

In my evaluation the most fundamental mistake of the blood moons proponents is that they have taken several Scriptures out of context and twisted them to fit their argument. We first run into this when Hagee and Blitz argue that the heavens serve as a “cosmic high-definition billboard” which advertises God’s agenda to the world. They base this on an exaggerated reading of Genesis 1:14.

However, if we go back and look at that verse, it’s simply stating that the sun, moon and stars were created for more practical purposes, which are as follows:

·         Separation: the sun and moon are there to divide the day from the night. As the earth spins on its axis it moves one hemisphere from day to night.

·         Regulation: Along with marking the passing of days and nights, the sun and moon are there to be “signs and for seasons and for days and years.” The earth’s rotation on its axis determines our days. The moon’s orbit around the earth determines our months. The earth’s rotation around the sun determines our years. At some point during the earth’s journey around the sun, one hemisphere is closer to the sun and the opposite hemisphere is farther away.  This accounts for the differing weather patterns of spring, summer, winter, and fall.

·         Illumination:  Genesis 1:15-17 tells us of the two great lights, “one to rule the day and one to rule the night.”

There is nothing really extraordinary associated with the regular movements of the heavenly bodies as reported in Genesis. This passage has nothing to do with God using the sun, moon, or stars as a means of sending mankind specific messages. I think that Hagee and Blitz are overstating the real purpose for God creating the heavenly bodies as spelled out in the creation week. The lights in the heavens are “signs” only in the sense that they mark off time periods—like the changing of spring to summer.

Never in the Bible are we told to look for astrological signs in an attempt to discern future events. Instead, this practice of astrology is flatly rejected by God, “And beware lest you raise your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the host of heaven, you be drawn away and bow down to them and serve them, things that the Lord your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven” (Deut. 4:19).

The stars, planets, and moons should awaken wonder at God’s power, wisdom, and infinitude. We should use the stars to keep track of time and place and to remind us of God’s faithful, covenant-keeping nature. Anything beyond that is treading into dangerous territory.

There are also problems with the other passages which are listed above as evidence of the blood moons prophecy. Let’s first look at the oft-quoted passage by Hagee and Blitz in Joel 2:30-31. There are two basic difficulties with using this passage. The first is a timing incongruity and the second is an issue with selective interpretation.

At the beginning of Joel 2 we are given a time-stamp which explains when this prophecy will come to pass. The important phrase comes in 2:1, “Blow a trumpet in Zion; sound an alarm on my holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble, for the day of the Lord is coming; it is near.” Again in Joel 2:11 we read, “For the day of the Lord is great and very awesome; who can endure it?”

The Old Testament refers to “the day of the Lord” nineteen times (Isaiah 2:12, Ez. 13:5, Joel 2:1, 11, 31; Micah 4:5). The New Testament mentions “the day of the Lord” four times (Acts 2:20, 1 Thess. 5:2, 2 Thess. 2:2, 2 Peter 3:10). If you do an in-depth study into the meaning of this phrase, you’ll quickly understand that this is a period at the end of time in which God miraculously intervenes in human affairs. It is a time of unparalleled natural disasters, judgment, and terror. The events described during “the day of the Lord” correspond with the same kind of supernatural wrath and destruction defined during the tribulation period in Revelation 4-19 and Matthew 24. Remember that the tribulation is a future seven-year period of time when God will finish His discipline of Israel and finalize His judgment of the unbelieving world. Therefore, it is safe to say that “the day of the Lord” and the tribulation period are synonymous terms describing the same cataclysmic time period when God unleashes unprecedented judgment on the world.

If we pay attention to the context of Joel 2 then it’s clear that those events will take place during the tribulation. This becomes a problem for Blitz and Hagee’s theory because the setting for the sun being darkened and the moon turning to blood will be just before the Second Advent of Christ, which cannot be in 2014-2015, since we are not in the seven-year tribulation period that must precede it.

Another problem with Joel 2 is that it speaks of other astronomical phenomena going on at the same times as the blood moons. For example, Joel 2:10 adds, “The earth quakes before them; the heavens tremble. The sun and the moon are darkened, and the stars withdraw their shining.” Obviously, these events are considered to all happen in conjunction, which is scientifically impossible considering that a solar and lunar eclipse cannot happen at once. Thus, the events spoken of here are supernatural and definitely not on NASA’s radar. Notice also that this same prophecy speaks of a total darkening of the heavens and an earthquake. Hagee and Blitz do not factor in these other events taking place in 2014-2015. If we are going to be consistent in our interpretation of this passage then we have to consider all of this prophecy in order for this to be fulfilled, not just selected parts of it.     

These same problems also apply to Matthew 24:29-30. First, Jesus appears to be saying that the darkening of the sun and moon and the falling of the stars will happen at once. If this is correct then it cannot refer to the blood moons of 2014-2015 for the same reason that the Joel 2 passage doesn’t fit. The fact that all of these phenomena are happening at once entails an incredible, once-in-the-history-of-the-universe event—not a predictable series of eclipses. While there may be a solar eclipse to occur on March 20, 2015, this will not happen on the same day as any of the lunar eclipses.

This passage also suffers from a timing inconsistency. Notice when Jesus says these celestial events will happen, “immediately after the tribulation of those days (Matt. 24:29). In other words, these events happen at the end of the seven years of tribulation. Again, this passage cannot apply to 2014-2015 because we are not yet in the tribulation.  

Revelation 6:12-13 also cannot pertain to the blood moons of 2014-2015 for the same reasons as the other two passages. The context of this passage is set during the tribulation. Since the blood moons of Revelation 6 happen as a result of the opening of the sixth seal then we have to consider the previous five seals. The first seal releases a rider on a white horse; the antichrist. The second seal unleashes a red horse which brings worldwide war. The third seal lets loose a rider on a black horse which brings with it hyperinflation and famine. The fourth seal brings about the rider on the pale horse which has death and hell behind him. As far as I know, none of these terrible things have happened yet. Therefore, Revelation 6 cannot apply to the blood moons of 2014-2015 since the tribulation hasn’t started.

Revelation 6:12-14 also outlines five other cosmic signs along with the blood moons—a great earthquake, the sun becoming as sackcloth, the stars falling from the sky, the sky splitting like a scroll, and the mountains and islands moving. I hate to sound like a broken record player, but proponents of the blood moons prophecy conveniently ignore all of these other signs that accompany the moon turning to blood.

Finally, prophecy scholar Mark Hitchcock points out, “None of the verses quoted to support this theory mentions four blood moons. The entire blood moon prophecy is based on something that the Bible never specifically predicts. The Bible does mention the moon turning to blood in connection with Christ’s return, but it never mentions four blood moons, let alone four blood moons in conjunction with the Jewish feasts of Passover and Tabernacles.”[11]

Once in a Blood Moon

God can do anything He desires with the world He has made. In fact, He caused an unusual star to guide the wise men to the Christ child (Matt. 2:2) and He caused unnatural darkness to envelop the skies of Jerusalem during Jesus’ crucifixion (Matt. 27:45). However, these were special, supernatural events that coincided with significant moments in the life of Christ. Moreover, we know that God will cause supernatural disturbances in the heavens during the tribulation period (Luke 21:25-26). But these are exceptions to the norm—what we would call miracles. 

The problem with claiming that the blood moons are “special” or “rare” occasions is misleading, since they are phenomena which astronomers are able to predict with regularity. In fact, the NASA website has every solar and lunar eclipse that will occur already marked on the calendar until the year 2050.[12] The reason they can do this is because the orbit of the moon around the earth and the orbit of the earth around the sun is constant. Miracles, on the other hand, are not predictable or even expected. The problem is that the passages the blood moon preachers cite as evidence for their theory are definitely miraculous in nature. They report future supernatural phenomena that could not be explained by science. Therefore, the blood moons of 2014-2015 do not seem to fit with the prophetic passages cited because they are part of the natural and predictable order of the solar system.    

In a fascinating article published by creation scientist Dr. Danny Faulkner, he explains how eclipses and even tetrads are not really as exceptional as Blitz and Hagee would lead us to believe.

To illustrate the frequency of the coincidence of lunar eclipses with Passover and Sukkot, consider that there were 230 lunar eclipses of all types (total, partial, and penumbral) during the twentieth century (1901–2000) . . . and 39 lunar eclipses in the twentieth century that coincided with Passover or Sukkot . . . This is about one-sixth (39/230) of the twentieth-century lunar eclipses, which is what we would expect because Passover and Sukkot happen in two of the 12 months. Therefore, again, the coincidence of lunar eclipses with these two observances is more common than Biltz realizes.[13]   

Another glaring problem with the blood moons prophecy is that it will not be visible to everyone on earth. Concerning the first blood moon on April 14, 2014, NASA reported, “None of the eclipse is visible from north/east Europe, eastern Africa, the Middle East or Central Asia.”[14] Since the Middle East will not see the first blood moon, that means that Israel—the nation to which the blood moon prophecies are supposed to be for—won’t even catch a glimpse. Astronomers say this is true of the second blood moon as well, on October 8, 2014.    

Why is this an issue? Because two of the blood moon passages that Biltz and Hagee cite are connected with the return of Christ (Joel 2:30-31, Matt 24:29-30). Scripture tells us very specifically that when Jesus returns His coming will be witnessed universally, “Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and all tribes of the earth will wail on account of him” (Rev. 1:7). The limited visibility of the blood moon tetrad works against the idea that something of biblical proportions is about to happen. Mark Hitchcock adds:

Something can’t be a sign if you never know about it. Those who maintain that the four blood moons are a portent that something is about to change need to explain how something hidden to most of the world, and especially those in Israel, can serve as a dramatic sign of the times for them. This is a serious problem.[15]

Historical Sleight of Hand  

Blitz and Hagee are also misleading in the way they report the connection between blood moons of the past and significant events for the Jewish people. There’s no doubt that in the past noteworthy events in Jewish history have occurred around the time of a tetrad, but this is not all it’s cracked up to be.

First, let’s look at the supposed connection with the tetrads of 1493-1494 and the Great Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. John Hagee wrote, “The explusion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 was a world-changing moment. The mantle of prosperity was lifted from Spain and placed upon the shoulders of an infant nation that would become the United States of America. God Almighty used the Four Blood Moons of 1493-94 as a heavenly billboard to mankind.”[16] 

There is no doubt that the Edict of Expulsion was significant for Israel. However, I don’t see how the blood moons heralded this great persecution since the tetrad of 1493-1494 happened after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and the discovery of the New World by Columbus in 1492. The blood moons can’t be much of a sign to the Jewish people to get ready for change if they happened after the fact. Something can’t be a sign of a coming storm if it happens after the event. That sign isn’t much help—kind of like sounding the fire alarm after the house has been burned down.

The second tetrad of 1949-1950 is flawed for the same reason. The birth of the nation of Israel in May 1948 was a prophetic game changer. I personally believe it is the greatest sign that we are indeed in the last days. Almost every other end-times prophecy hinges in one way or another on the presence of the Jewish people in their land. This should not be overlooked. However, the blood moons tetrad of 1949-1950 happened after the nation was born. Israel’s rebirth occurred on May 14, 1948 and the eclipses came a year later. Again, something cannot be a sign if it postdates what it’s supposed to predict.

What about the third tetrad? On June 5, 1967, the Six Day War erupted in Palestine. As previously noted, Israel’s victory was overwhelming and shocked the Arab world. The first blood moon of the tetrad occurred on April 24, 1967, a little over two months before the Six Day War began. The final tetrad of this series happened on October 6, 1968. So it would seem that this historical example has some validity. 

My point is that the historical evidence for the blood moons prophecy is hit or miss. Hagee and Biltz’s claims are not as airtight as they may seem. In fact, in a World Net Daily interview Blitz reported, “We are on the verge of witnessing something historic. This has happened only eight times over the last 2,000 years!”[17] Eight times?! I wonder why he is talking only about four tetrads and leaving the other four out? My guess is that because the four tetrads before 1493-1494 were not connected to anything historically significant in the lives of Jewish people. Since they didn’t support his theory he conveniently threw them out.

If Biltz and Hagee are really suggesting that God uses these tetrads as a means of communicating to Israel about coming events, where were the warnings about the far greater and far worse events the Jewish people have faced? Why didn’t God warn them about the Holocaust or the Roman siege in 70 AD? Furthermore, why are some of the tetrads denoting good events, while others bad events? The Spanish Inquisition right next to the victory of the Six-Day War? There seems to be no rhyme or reason to it.


Please do not misunderstand me. I do believe that significant things are on the horizon for Israel and the rest of the world. Bible prophecy declares that times are a changin’ and we ought to be ready as God’s people if the Lord tarries. However, I just don’t think there is any connection between Israel’s future and the blood moon tetrads of 2014-2015. When you place the theory up against scriptural and historic evidence it withers away into another false prophecy that sounds compelling and will no doubt send books flying off the shelves.

That being said, I do believe that there are signs indicating that Christ’s return could be very near. However we still must confess that we don’t know the specific day, the hour, or the year of His coming (Mark 13:32) or the Rapture. God’s timetable is not ours. Christ could return tomorrow or it could be another century. All we can do is be ready for Him by working, witnessing, and watching. Perhaps the best advice we can take is from Martin Luther who said we should, “live like Jesus died last evening, rose from the dead this morning and is coming back after suppertime.” 

Video Links:

Mark Blitz on "Prophecy in the News" <>

John Hagee preaching <> 

[1] Mark Hitchcock, Blood Moons Prophecy (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale, 2014), 167-168. 
[2] Tom de Castella, “What Caused the Mystery of the Dark Day?” BBC News Magazine, 18 May 2012 <>.
[3] Arthur C. Clarke, quoted in Richard A. Swenson, Hurtling toward Oblivion (Colorado Springs: NavPress 1999), 20. 
[4] Bruce McClure and Deborah Byrd, “What Is a Blood Moon?” Earth & Sky, 30 March 2014 <>.  
[5] Mark Blitz quoted in Raphael Poch, “Blood Moons Rising (This Passover)” Breaking Israel News, 13 April 2014
[6] John Hagee, Four Blood Moons (Brentwood, TN: Worthy Publishing, 2013), 237, 244.  
[7] John Hagee quoted in Erick Stackelback, “Divine Sign for Israel? Hagee Explains Blood Moons” CBN News, 15 April 2014 <>.
[8] Hagee, 20.
[9] David Jeremiah, What in the World Is Going on? (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2008), 22.
[10] Hitchcock, 57-68.
[11] Hitchcock, 124-125.
[13] Danny Faulkner, “Will Lunar Eclipses Cause Four Blood Moons in 2014 and 2015?” Answers in Genesis, 12 July 2013 <>.
[14] Fred Espenak, “Eclipses During 2014,” <>
[15] Hitchcock, 97-98.
[16] Hagee, 195.
[17] Mark Blitz, quoted in “Blood Moon: A Special Message to America?” World Net Daily, 13 April 2014 <> 

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